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ps command man page

PS(1)      Linux User’s Manual PS(1)

NAME
       ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.
SYNOPSIS
       ps [options]

DESCRIPTION
       ps displays information about a selection of the active processes. If
       you want a repetitive update of the selection and the displayed
       information, use top(1) instead.

       This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:
       1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
       2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
       3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.

       Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can
       appear. There are some synonymous options, which are functionally
       identical, due to the many standards and ps implementations that this
       ps is compatible with.

       Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux". The POSIX and UNIX
       standards require that "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user
       named "x", as well as printing all processes that would be selected by
       the -a option. If the user named "x" does not exist, this ps may
       interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a warning. This
       behavior is intended to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits. It
       is fragile, subject to change, and thus should not be relied upon.

       By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID
       (euid=EUID) as the current user and associated with the same terminal
       as the invoker. It displays the process ID (pid=PID), the terminal
       associated with the process (tname=TTY), the cumulated CPU time in
       [dd-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name (ucmd=CMD).
       Output is unsorted by default.

       The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the
       default display and show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the
       executable name. You can override this with the PS_FORMAT environment
       variable. The use of BSD-style options will also change the process
       selection to include processes on other terminals (TTYs) that are owned
       by you; alternately, this may be described as setting the selection to
       be the set of all processes filtered to exclude processes owned by
       other users or not on a terminal. These effects are not considered when
       options are described as being "identical" below, so -M will be
       considered identical to Z and so on.

       Except as described below, process selection options are additive. The
       default selection is discarded, and then the selected processes are
       added to the set of processes to be displayed. A process will thus be
       shown if it meets any of the given selection criteria.

EXAMPLES
       To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
 ps -e
 ps -ef
 ps -eF
 ps -ely

       To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
 ps ax
 ps axu

       To print a process tree:
 ps -ejH
 ps axjf

       To get info about threads:
 ps -eLf
 ps axms

       To get security info:
 ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
 ps axZ
 ps -eM

       To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user
       format:
 ps -U root -u root u

       To see every process with a user-defined format:
 ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
 ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
 ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

       Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
 ps -C syslogd -o pid=

       Print only the name of PID 42:
 ps -p 42 -o comm=

SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
       -A       Select all processes. Identical to -e.


       -N       Select all processes except those that fulfill the
      specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
      to --deselect.


       T       Select all processes associated with this terminal.
      Identical to the t option without any argument.


       -a       Select all processes except session leaders (see
      getsid(2)) and processes not associated with a
      terminal.


       a       Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which
      is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
      BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
      personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
      selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
      processes selected by other means. An alternate
      description is that this option causes ps to list all
      processes with a terminal (tty), or to list all
      processes when used together with the x option.


       -d       Select all processes except session leaders.


       -e       Select all processes. Identical to -A.


       g       Really all, even session leaders. This flag is obsolete
      and may be discontinued in a future release. It is
      normally implied by the a flag, and is only useful when
      operating in the sunos4 personality.


       r       Restrict the selection to only running processes.


       x       Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which
      is imposed upon the set of all processes when some
      BSD-style (without "-") options are used or when the ps
      personality setting is BSD-like. The set of processes
      selected in this manner is in addition to the set of
      processes selected by other means. An alternate
      description is that this option causes ps to list all
      processes owned by you (same EUID as ps), or to list
      all processes when used together with the a option.


       --deselect      Select all processes except those that fulfill the
      specified conditions. (negates the selection) Identical
      to -N.

PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
       These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated
       or comma-separated list. They can be used multiple times.
       For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4


       -C cmdlist      Select by command name.
      This selects the processes whose executable name is
      given in cmdlist.


       -G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
      This selects the processes whose real group name or ID
      is in the grplist list. The real group ID identifies
      the group of the user who created the process, see
      getgid(2).


       U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
      This selects the processes whose effective user name or
      ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
      user whose file access permissions are used by the
      process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to -u and --user.


       -U userlist     select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
      It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is
      in the userlist list. The real user ID identifies the
      user who created the process, see getuid(2).


       -g grplist      Select by session OR by effective group name.
      Selection by session is specified by many standards,
      but selection by effective group is the logical
      behavior that several other operating systems use. This
      ps will select by session when the list is completely
      numeric (as sessions are). Group ID numbers will work
      only when some group names are also specified. See the
      -s and --group options.


       p pidlist       Select by process ID. Identical to -p and --pid.


       -p pidlist      Select by PID.
      This selects the processes whose process ID numbers
      appear in pidlist. Identical to p and --pid.


       -s sesslist     Select by session ID.
      This selects the processes with a session ID specified
      in sesslist.


       t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but
      can also be used with an empty ttylist to indicate the
      terminal associated with ps. Using the T option is
      considered cleaner than using T with an empty ttylist.


       -t ttylist      Select by tty.
      This selects the processes associated with the
      terminals given in ttylist. Terminals (ttys, or screens
      for text output) can be specified in several forms:
      /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain "-" may be used to
      select processes not attached to any terminal.


       -u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
      This selects the processes whose effective user name or
      ID is in userlist. The effective user ID describes the
      user whose file access permissions are used by the
      process (see geteuid(2)). Identical to U and --user.


       --Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to
      -G.


       --User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.


       --group grplist Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.
      This selects the processes whose effective group name
      or ID is in grouplist. The effective group ID describes
      the group whose file access permissions are used by the
      process (see geteuid(2)). The -g option is often an
      alternative to --group.


       --pid pidlist   Select by process ID. Identical to -p and p.


       --ppid pidlist  Select by parent process ID. This selects the processes
      with a parent process ID in pidlist. That is, it
      selects processes that are children of those listed in
      pidlist.


       --sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.


       --tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.


       --user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical
      to -u and U.


       -123       Identical to --sid 123.


       123       Identical to --pid 123.

OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
       These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The
       output may differ by personality.

       -F       extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.


       -O format       is like -o, but preloaded with some default columns.
      Identical to -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or
      -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.


       O format       is preloaded o (overloaded).
      The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
      format with some common fields predefined) or can be
      used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
      determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
      the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
      formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
      with -O or --sort). When used as a formatting option,
      it is identical to -O, with the BSD personality.


       -M       Add a column of security data. Identical to Z.
      (for SE Linux)


       X       Register format.


       Z       Add a column of security data. Identical to -M.
      (for SE Linux)


       -c       Show different scheduler information for the -l option.


       -f       does full-format listing. This option can be combined
      with many other UNIX-style options to add additional
      columns. It also causes the command arguments to be
      printed. When used with -L, the NLWP (number of
      threads) and LWP (thread ID) columns will be added. See
      the c option, the format keyword args, and the format
      keyword comm.


       j       BSD job control format.


       -j       jobs format


       l       display BSD long format.


       -l       long format. The -y option is often useful with this.


       o format       specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and
      --format.

       -o format       user-defined format.
      format is a single argument in the form of a
      blank-separated or comma-separated list, which offers a
      way to specify individual output columns. The
      recognized keywords are described in the STANDARD
      FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below. Headers may be renamed
      (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired.
      If all column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=)
      then the header line will not be output. Column width
      will increase as needed for wide headers; this may be
      used to widen up columns such as WCHAN
      (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit
      width control (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too.
      The behavior of ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with
      personality; output may be one column named "X,comm=Y"
      or two columns named "X" and "Y". Use multiple -o
      options when in doubt. Use the PS_FORMAT environment
      variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV and
      DefBSD are macros that may be used to choose the
      default UNIX or BSD columns.


       s       display signal format


       u       display user-oriented format


       v       display virtual memory format


       -y       Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr. This
      option can only be used with -l.


       -Z       display security context format (SELinux, etc.)


       --format format user-defined format. Identical to -o and o.

       --context       Display security context format. (for SE Linux)

OUTPUT MODIFIERS
       -H       show process hierarchy (forest)

       N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.


       O order       Sorting order. (overloaded)
      The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output
      format with some common fields predefined) or can be
      used to specify sort order. Heuristics are used to
      determine the behavior of this option. To ensure that
      the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
      formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g.
      with -O or --sort).

      For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
      O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It orders the processes
      listing according to the multilevel sort specified by
      the sequence of one-letter short keys k1, k2, ...
      described in the OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section below.
      The "+" is currently optional, merely re-iterating the
      default direction on a key, but may help to distinguish
      an O sort from an O format. The "-" reverses direction
      only on the key it precedes.


       S       Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead
      child processes into their parent. This is useful for
      examining a system where a parent process repeatedly
      forks off short-lived children to do work.


       c       Show the true command name. This is derived from the
      name of the executable file, rather than from the argv
      value. Command arguments and any modifications to them
      (see setproctitle(3)) are thus not shown. This option
      effectively turns the args format keyword into the comm
      format keyword; it is useful with the -f format option
      and with the various BSD-style format options, which
      all normally display the command arguments. See the -f
      option, the format keyword args, and the format keyword
      comm.


       e       Show the environment after the command.


       f       ASCII-art process hierarchy (forest)


       h       No header. (or, one header per screen in the BSD
      personality)
      The h option is problematic. Standard BSD ps uses this
      option to print a header on each page of output, but
      older Linux ps uses this option to totally disable the
      header. This version of ps follows the Linux usage of
      not printing the header unless the BSD personality has
      been selected, in which case it prints a header on each
      page of output. Regardless of the current personality,
      you can use the long options --headers and --no-headers
      to enable printing headers each page or disable headers
      entirely, respectively.

       k spec       specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
      [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
      from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
      optional since default direction is increasing
      numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to --sort.
      Examples:
      ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
      ps axk comm o comm,args
      ps kstart_time -ef


       -n namelist     set namelist file. Identical to N.
      The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display,
      and must match the current Linux kernel exactly for
      correct output. Without this option, the default search
      path for the namelist is:

   $PS_SYSMAP
   $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
   /proc/*/wchan
   /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
   /boot/System.map
   /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
   /usr/src/linux/System.map
   /System.map


       n       Numeric output for WCHAN and USER. (including all types
      of UID and GID)

       -w       Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


       w       Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


       --cols n       set screen width


       --columns n     set screen width


       --cumulative    include some dead child process data (as a sum with the
      parent)


       --forest       ASCII art process tree


       --headers       repeat header lines, one per page of output


       --no-headers    print no header line at all


       --lines n       set screen height


       --rows n       set screen height

       --sort spec     specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is
      [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]] Choose a multi-letter key
      from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. The "+" is
      optional since default direction is increasing
      numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to k. For
      example: ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid


       --width n       set screen width

THREAD DISPLAY
       H       Show threads as if they were processes

       -L       Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns

       -T       Show threads, possibly with SPID column

       m       Show threads after processes

       -m       Show threads after processes


OTHER INFORMATION
       L       List all format specifiers.

       -V       Print the procps version.

       V       Print the procps version.

       --help       Print a help message.

       --info       Print debugging info.

       --version       Print the procps version.

NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not
       need to be setuid kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this
       ps any special permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For
       kernels prior to 2.6, the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent
       running during the entire lifetime of a process. This is not ideal,
       and it does not conform to the standards that ps otherwise conforms to.
       CPU usage is unlikely to add up to exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don’t count some parts of a process including
       the page tables, kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct
       task_struct. This is usually at least 20 KiB of memory that is always
       resident. SIZE is the virtual size of the process (code+data+stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies")
       that remain because their parent has not destroyed them properly. These
       processes will be destroyed by init(8) if the parent process exits.

       If the length of the username is greater than the length of the display
       column, the numeric user ID is displayed instead.


PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is
       provided by the flags output specifier.
       1    forked but didn’t exec
       4    used super-user privileges

PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output
       specifiers (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of
       a process.
       D    Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
       R    Running or runnable (on run queue)
       S    Interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
       T    Stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being
   traced.
       W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
       X    dead (should never be seen)
       Z    Defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its
   parent.

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional
       characters may be displayed:
       <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
       N    low-priority (nice to other users)
       L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
       s    is a session leader
       l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
       +    is in the foreground process group


OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting).
       The GNU --sort option doesn’t use these keys, but the specifiers
       described below in the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. Note that
       the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses and not the
       "cooked" values used in some of the output format fields (e.g. sorting
       on tty will sort into device number, not according to the terminal name
       displayed). Pipe ps output into the sort(1) command if you want to sort
       the cooked values.

       KEY   LONG  DESCRIPTION
       c     cmd  simple name of executable
       C     pcpu  cpu utilization
       f     flags  flags as in long format F field
       g     pgrp  process group ID
       G     tpgid  controlling tty process group ID
       j     cutime  cumulative user time
       J     cstime  cumulative system time
       k     utime  user time
       m     min_flt  number of minor page faults
       M     maj_flt  number of major page faults
       n     cmin_flt  cumulative minor page faults
       N     cmaj_flt  cumulative major page faults
       o     session  session ID
       p     pid  process ID
       P     ppid  parent process ID
       r     rss  resident set size
       R     resident  resident pages
       s     size  memory size in kilobytes
       S     share  amount of shared pages
       t     tty  the device number of the controlling tty
       T     start_time  time process was started
       U     uid  user ID number
       u     user  user name
       v     vsize  total VM size in kB
       y     priority  kernel scheduling priority


AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the
       formatting codes of printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal
       default output can be produced with this:  ps -eo "%p %y %x %c".
       The NORMAL codes are described in the next section.

       CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
       %C     pcpu     %CPU
       %G     group    GROUP
       %P     ppid     PPID
       %U     user     USER
       %a     args     COMMAND
       %c     comm     COMMAND
       %g     rgroup   RGROUP
       %n     nice     NI
       %p     pid      PID
       %r     pgid     PGID
       %t     etime    ELAPSED
       %u     ruser    RUSER
       %x     time     TIME
       %y     tty      TTY
       %z     vsz      VSZ

STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output
       format (e.g. with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the
       GNU-style --sort option.

       For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in
       other implementations of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args,
       cmd, comm, command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.


CODE   HEADER   DESCRIPTION

%cpu   %CPU    cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format.
   Currently, it is the CPU time used divided by the time the
   process has been running (cputime/realtime ratio),
   expressed as a percentage. It will not add up to 100%
   unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).

%mem   %MEM    ratio of the process’s resident set size  to the physical
   memory on the machine, expressed as a percentage.
   (alias pmem).

args   COMMAND  command with all its arguments as a string. Modifications
   to the arguments may be shown. The output in this column
   may contain spaces. A process marked <defunct> is partly
   dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent.
   Sometimes the process args will be unavailable; when this
   happens, ps will instead print the executable name in
   brackets. (alias cmd, command). See also the comm format
   keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
   When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
   of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
   when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
   command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
   unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
   COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
   to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
   option may be also be used to adjust width.

blocked   BLOCKED  mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to
   the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
   hexadecimal format is displayed.
   (alias sig_block, sigmask).

bsdstart   START    time the command started. If the process was started less
   than 24 hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it
   is "mmm dd" (where mmm is the three letters of the month).

bsdtime   TIME    accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is
   usually "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the
   process used more than 999 minutes of cpu time.

c   C    processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer
   value of the percent usage over the lifetime of the
   process. (see %cpu).

caught   CAUGHT   mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to
   the width of the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in
   hexadecimal format is displayed.
   (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

class   CLS    scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls).
   Field’s possible values are:
   - not reported
   TS SCHED_OTHER
   FF SCHED_FIFO
   RR SCHED_RR
   ? unknown value


cls   CLS    scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class).
   Field’s possible values are:
   - not reported
   TS SCHED_OTHER
   FF SCHED_FIFO
   RR SCHED_RR
   ? unknown value

cmd   CMD    see args. (alias args, command).

comm   COMMAND  command name (only the executable name). Modifications to
   the command name will not be shown. A process marked
   <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully destroyed by
   its parent. The output in this column may contain spaces.
   (alias ucmd, ucomm). See also the args format keyword, the
   -f option, and the c option.
   When specified last, this column will extend to the edge
   of the display. If ps can not determine display width, as
   when output is redirected (piped) into a file or another
   command, the output width is undefined. (it may be 80,
   unlimited, determined by the TERM variable, and so on) The
   COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be used
   to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w
   option may be also be used to adjust width.

command   COMMAND  see args. (alias args, cmd).

cp   CP    per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

cputime   TIME    cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

egid   EGID    effective group ID number of the process as a decimal
   integer. (alias gid).

egroup   EGROUP   effective group ID of the process. This will be the
   textual group ID, if it can be obtained and the field
   width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
   (alias group).

eip   EIP    instruction pointer.

esp   ESP    stack pointer.

etime   ELAPSED  elapsed time since the process was started, in the
   form [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss.

euid   EUID    effective user ID. (alias uid).

euser   EUSER    effective user name. This will be the textual user ID,
   if it can be obtained and the field width permits,
   or a decimal representation otherwise. The n option can be
   used to force the decimal representation.
   (alias uname, user).

f   F    flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS
   section. (alias flag, flags).

fgid   FGID    filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

fgroup   FGROUP   filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual
   user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
   permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.
   (alias fsgroup).

flag   F    see f. (alias f, flags).

flags   F    see f. (alias f, flag).

fname   COMMAND  first 8 bytes of the base name of the process’s executable
   file. The output in this column may contain spaces.


fuid   FUID    filesystem access user ID. (alias fsuid).

fuser   FUSER    filesystem access user ID. This will be the textual
   user ID, if it can be obtained and the field width
   permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

gid   GID    see egid. (alias egid).

group   GROUP    see egroup. (alias egroup).

ignored   IGNORED  mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to
   the width of the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in
   hexadecimal format is displayed. (alias sig_ignore,
   sigignore).

label   LABEL    security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context
   data. This is for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC")
   found on high-security systems.

lstart   STARTED  time the command started.

lwp   LWP    lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being
   reported. (alias spid, tid).

ni   NI    nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice
   to others), see nice(1). (alias nice).

nice   NI    see ni. (alias ni).

nlwp   NLWP    number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

nwchan   WCHAN    address of the kernel function where the process is
   sleeping (use wchan if you want the kernel function name).
   Running tasks will display a dash (’-’) in this column.

pcpu   %CPU    see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

pending   PENDING  mask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals
   pending on the process are distinct from signals pending
   on individual threads. Use the m option or the -m option
   to see both. According to the width of the field, a 32-bit
   or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
   (alias sig).

pgid   PGID    process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
   process group leader. (alias pgrp).

pgrp   PGRP    see pgid. (alias pgid).

pid   PID    process ID number of the process.

pmem   %MEM    see %mem. (alias %mem).

policy   POL    scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls).
   Possible values are:
   - not reported
   TS SCHED_OTHER
   FF SCHED_FIFO
   RR SCHED_RR
   ? unknown value

ppid   PPID    parent process ID.

psr   PSR    processor that process is currently assigned to.

rgid   RGID    real group ID.

rgroup   RGROUP   real group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
   can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
   representation otherwise.


rss   RSS    resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a
   task has used (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).

rssize   RSS    see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

rsz   RSZ    see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

rtprio   RTPRIO   realtime priority.

ruid   RUID    real user ID.

ruser   RUSER    real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can
   be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
   representation otherwise.

s   S    minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS
   STATE CODES for the different values. See also stat if you
   want additional information displayed. (alias state).

sched   SCH    scheduling policy of the process. The policies
   sched_other, sched_fifo, and sched_rr are respectively
   displayed as 0, 1, and 2.

sess   SESS    session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the
   session leader. (alias session, sid).

sgi_p   P    processor that the process is currently executing on.
   Displays "*" if the process is not currently running or
   runnable.

sgid   SGID    saved group ID. (alias svgid).

sgroup   SGROUP   saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it
   can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
   representation otherwise.

sid   SID    see sess. (alias sess, session).

sig   PENDING  see pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

sigcatch   CAUGHT   see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

sigignore  IGNORED  see ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

sigmask   BLOCKED  see blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

size   SZ    approximate amount of swap space that would be required if
   the process were to dirty all writable pages and then be
   swapped out. This number is very rough!

spid   SPID    see lwp. (alias lwp, tid).

stackp   STACKP   address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

start   STARTED  time the command started. If the process was started less
   than 24 hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else
   it is "  mmm dd" (where mmm is a three-letter month name).

start_time START    starting time or date of the process. Only the year will
   be displayed if the process was not started the same year
   ps was invoked, or "mmmdd" if it was not started the same
   day, or "HH:MM" otherwise.

stat   STAT    multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE
   CODES for the different values meaning. See also s and
   state if you just want the first character displayed.

state   S    see s. (alias s).

suid   SUID    saved user ID. (alias svuid).


suser   SUSER    saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it
   can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
   representation otherwise. (alias svuser).

svgid   SVGID    see sgid. (alias sgid).

svuid   SVUID    see suid. (alias suid).

sz   SZ    size in physical pages of the core image of the process.
   This includes text, data, and stack space. Device mappings
   are currently excluded; this is subject to change. See vsz
   and rss.

thcount   THCNT    see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by
   the process.

tid   TID    see lwp. (alias lwp).

time   TIME    cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format.
   (alias cputime).

tname   TTY    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

tpgid   TPGID    ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal)
   that the process is connected to, or -1 if the process is
   not connected to a tty.

tt   TT    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

tty   TT    controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

ucmd   CMD    see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

ucomm   COMMAND  see comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

uid   UID    see euid. (alias euid).

uname   USER    see euser. (alias euser, user).

user   USER    see euser. (alias euser, uname).

vsize   VSZ    see vsz. (alias vsz).

vsz   VSZ    virtual memory size of the process in KiB
   (1024-byte units). Device mappings are currently excluded;
   this is subject to change. (alias vsize).

wchan   WCHAN    name of the kernel function in which the process is
   sleeping, a "-" if the process is running, or a "*" if the
   process is multi-threaded and ps is not displaying
   threads.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
 Override default display width.

       LINES
 Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
 Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
 (see section PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
 Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
 (see section PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
 Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
 Date format.

       PS_COLORS
 Not currently supported.

       PS_FORMAT
 Default output format override. You may set this to a format string
 of the type used for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values
 are particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
 Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
 Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
 Don’t find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
 When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
 Don’t find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
 Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables. The one exception
       is CMD_ENV or PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal
       systems. Without that setting, ps follows the useless and bad parts of
       the Unix98 standard.


PERSONALITY
       390  like the S/390 OpenEdition ps
       aix  like AIX ps
       bsd  like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
       compaq  like Digital Unix ps
       debian  like the old Debian ps
       digital  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       gnu  like the old Debian ps
       hp  like HP-UX ps
       hpux  like HP-UX ps
       irix  like Irix ps
       linux  ***** RECOMMENDED *****
       old  like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
       os390  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       posix  standard
       s390  like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       sco  like SCO ps
       sgi  like Irix ps
       solaris2  like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4  like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4  standard
       sysv  standard
       tru64  like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       unix  standard
       unix95  standard
       unix98  standard


SEE ALSO
       top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).


STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003

AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>.
       Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to
       use the proc filesystem, changing a few things in the process. Michael
       Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list feature. Charles
       Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style
       library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate
       binary search directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
       cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang wrote the generic BFD support for
       psupdate. Albert Cahalan <albert@users.sf.net> rewrote ps for full
       Unix98 and BSD support, along with some ugly hacks for obsolete and
       foreign syntax.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-feedback@lists.sf.net>.
       No subscription is required or suggested.


Linux July 28, 2004 PS(1)

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